The top IoT development companies should have programmers with expertise in general-purpose and embedded-specific languages. This gives them an edge over teams that only excel in data analytics. We check the extent of the agency’s proficiency in the following languages:
It’s the most basic but also one of the most important programming languages for embedded devices in the IoT ecosystem. With multiple logical and mathematical operators, it can apply several assignments to a single statement. This provides a more reliable and scalable code that’s platform-independent and can be reused in multiple settings.
This is an object-oriented programming extension of C. It’s used by IoT companies primarily for systems and application software, as well as drivers, client-server functions and embedded firmware. The way it uses predefined classes of data types that can be used multiple times makes it a flexible solution.
Java is probably the most popular coding language out there thanks to its stable nature, numerous dev tools, powerful libraries, and easy portability across different IoT platforms.
PHP usually brings website prototypes and blogs to mind. However, many IoT developer teams use PHP because it’s lightweight, easy to learn, and still has many advanced features for experienced coders. As an open-source solution that runs primarily on Apache servers, it has broad implications for big data analysis and multi-platform environments.
Python has been gaining popularity in recent years because of its increasingly robust microcontrollers, concise and readable coding style, and easy prototyping. It’s great for apps that have to deliver comprehensible data mining results, for embedded systems that process data in real time, and for writing automation tests for real-time embedded systems.
Short for Golang, this cutting-edge programming language from Google is popular among IoT companies working with embedded systems programming. This is thanks to its memory safety and CSP-style concurrency. It elegantly combines C and C++’s low-level features so that devices can work together to send and receive data over multiple channels simultaneously.
Similar to Go but developed by Mozilla, Rust’s typestate programming style and zero-cost abstractions make it a great choice for developing innovative embedded systems. This also allows for portability across a wide range of systems, from small microcontrollers to powerful SBCs. Its static analysis also guarantees that unintended components won’t consume any system resources.
ParaSail has a similar syntax to languages like C, Java, and Python. It can be useful to an internet of things company because it’s one of the best options for an IoT application that requires parallel processing.
Derived from the C family of programming languages and developed by Bell Labs, B# was designed with embedded systems in mind. Features like efficient boxing and unboxing conversions, multi-threading statements, field properties, device addressing registers, and interrupt handlers make it perfect for small-scale architectures with tight memory constraints.
There’s an almost bewildering choice of connectivity options for our internet of things companies. Depending on the application and factors such as range, data requirements, security, power demands, and battery life, developer teams need to be able to use certain common technologies.
We already know that BLE is a significant protocol for IoT applications. It isn’t designed for file transfer and is more suitable for small chunks of data, but its widespread integration in smartphones and other mobile devices makes it a top choice for personal devices.
Standard: Bluetooth 4.2 core specification
Frequency: 2.4 GHz (ISM)
Range: 50–150 m (Smart/BLE)
Data Rates: 1 Mbps (Smart/BLE)
ZigBee is another popular wireless protocol with a large installed base of operation more commonly seen in industrial IoT settings. The IoT services company you select should know the advantages it provides. To start, in complex systems, it offers low-power operation, high security, robustness, and high scalability, with high node counts, making it well-positioned to take advantage of wireless control and sensor networks in IoT applications.
Standard: ZigBee 3.0 based on IEEE802.15.4
Frequency: 2.4 GHz
Range: 10–100 m
Data Rates: 250 kbps
This is a low-power RF communications technology, primarily designed for home automation products like lamp controllers and sensors. It’s optimized for the reliable, low-latency communication of small data packets, and its use of a simpler protocol enables faster IoT development. However, there’s only one chip maker for Z-Wave, compared to multiple sources for other technologies like ZigBee.
Standard: Z-Wave Alliance ZAD12837 / ITU-T G.9959
Frequency: 900 MHz (ISM)
Range: 30 m
Data Rates: 9.6/40/100 kbit/s
6LowPAN is a network protocol that defines encapsulation and header compression mechanisms. It’s great for home and building automation, easily producing complex control systems and communicating with devices in a cost-effective manner via a low-power wireless network.
Frequency: Adapted and used over a variety of other networking media including Bluetooth Smart (2.4 GHz) or ZigBee or low-power RF (sub-1 GHz)
Data Rates: N/A
The pervasiveness of WiFi in homes and its ability to handle high quantities of data make it a common choice for IoT developers. The one drawback with the most common WiFi standard (802.11n) is that its throughput of hundreds of megabits per second is fine for file transfers but is too power-consuming for many IoT applications.
Standard: Based on 802.11n (most common)
Frequency: 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands
Range: Approximately 50 m
Data Rates: 600 Mbps maximum, but 150–200 Mbps is more typical, depending on the channel frequency used and the number of antennas (latest 802.11-ac standard should offer 500 Mbps to 1 Gbps)
This is a very new IP-based networking protocol for internet of things companies working in home automation. Though it’s similar to 6LowPAN, it is primarily designed to complement WiFi. Essentially, it recognizes that despite being good for many consumer devices, WiFi has limitations for use in a home automation setup.
Standard: Thread, based on IEEE802.15.4 and 6LowPAN
Frequency: 2.4 GHz (ISM)
Data Rates: N/A
GSM/3G/4G capabilities can be used with applications that need to operate over long distances. While cellular, especially 4G, is capable of sending high quantities of data, the expense and power consumption can be too high. However, internet of things software companies have found it ideal for sensor-based projects that send very low amounts of data over the internet.
Standard: GSM/GPRS/EDGE (2G), UMTS/HSPA (3G), LTE (4G)
Frequency: 900/1800/1900/2100 MHz
Range: 35 km max for GSM; 200 km max for HSPA
Data Rates: 35–170 kps (GPRS), 120–384 kbps (EDGE), 384 kbps–2 Mbps (UMTS), 600 kbps–10 Mbps (HSPA), 3–10 Mbps (LTE)
Near Field Communication is another commonly used technology that enables simple and safe two-way interactions between electronic devices. It’s especially useful for smartphones, allowing consumers to perform contactless payment transactions, access digital content, and connect electronic devices.
Standard: ISO/IEC 18000–3
Frequency: 13.56 MHz (ISM)
Range: 10 cm
Data Rates: 100–420 kbps
This is an alternative wide-range technology for internet of things companies that achieves a balance between the low range of WiFi and the high cost of cellular technologies. It offers a robust, power-efficient, and scalable network that can communicate with millions of battery-operated devices across several square kilometers. This makes it suitable for M2M applications like smart meters, patient monitors, security devices, street lighting, and environmental sensors.
Frequency: 900 MHz
Range: 30–50 km (rural environments), 3–10 km (urban environments)
Data Rates: 10–1000 bps
Similar in concept to Sigfox, Neul leverages very small slices of the TV white space spectrum to deliver high scalability, high coverage, low power, and low-cost wireless networks. It works over the UHF spectrum, which became available after the transition from analog TVs to digital TVs. The communications technology is called Weightless, which is a new wide-area wireless networking technology designed for IoT development, largely competing with existing GPRS, 3G, CDMA, and LTE WAN solutions.
Frequency: 900 MHz (ISM), 458 MHz (UK), 470–790 MHz (white space)
Range: 10 km
Data Rates: A few bps up to 100 kbps
Similar in some respects to Sigfox and Neul, LoRaWAN targets wide-area network (WAN) applications. It provides low-power WANs with features specifically needed to support low-cost, mobile, secure, bi-directional communication in IoT, M2M, and smart city and industrial applications. Because of this, it’s optimized for low power consumption and can support large networks with millions of devices.
Range: 2–5 km (urban environment), 15 km (suburban environment)
Data Rates: 0.3–50 kbps